The beauty of a diamond depends more on cut than any other factor. While all the other Cs are largely determined by Nature, cut is the one that can be determined by Man. For this reason, cut is perhaps the most important of the four Cs for us to understand.
Cut refers to the proportions, polish, and symmetry of a stone: these three factors are important in creating a diamond with the best possible light reflection. The angles and finish of any diamond are what determine its ability to handle light, and its brilliance.
When a diamond is well-cut, light enters through the table and travels to the pavilion, where it reflects from one side to the other before reflecting back out of the diamond through the table and to the observer’s eye. This light is the brilliance, and it’s this sparkling blaze that makes diamonds so captivating.
A poor cut, on the other hand, can cause light to seep out of the sides and bottom of the diamond, or it can limit the amount of light that enters a diamond. Poor cuts can therefore cause the diamond to appear dark, dull and lifeless, despite its colour and clarity grades. This is why cut is the most significant factor in the appearance of a diamond.
Brilliance, Fire and Scintillation
The cut of a diamond has three primary effects on appearance: Brilliance, Scintillation, and Fire.
Brilliance refers to the brightness of a diamond, created by the combination of all the white light reflections from the surface and the inside of a polished diamond. When light hits a diamond’s surface, some light enters and some is reflected back. The amount of light immediately reflected back depends upon the crown’s angles.
The cut of a diamond also creates “contrast”, the light and dark areas seen in a diamond. These dark areas are not inclusions, but shadows created by the cut or by objects between the light source and the diamond (such as the observer’s head).
The greater the amount of reflected light and the stronger the contrasts, the more brilliant the stone. A round diamond will typically exhibit more brilliance than a fancy shape due to the superior mechanics of the round cut for reflecting light.
Scintillation refers to the flashes of light, or sparkles, which are produced when a diamond is tilted from side to side. These flashes are caused when light that isn’t immediately reflected back enters the diamond and bounces off the internal walls. They are most pronounced in flood lit areas where strong light enters the diamond from multiple angles.
The light that reflects out of a diamond can appear in brilliant white flashes, or in a rainbow of colour, referred to as Fire. The fire effect is caused by the proper bending and dispersion of light as it travels through the diamond. The more colourless the diamond, the truer the dispersed colours will appear. This effect is greater in darker areas where there are fewer light sources.
Maximum brilliance is achieved in diamonds that posses both greatest fire and best scintillation.
Understanding Diamond Anatomy
To properly understand a diamond’s cut, it is important to understand the terminology of basic diamond structure as it relates to proportion, symmetry and polish.
Diameter: The diameter is the width of a polished diamond from one side of the girdle to another
Table: The table is the largest polished facet of the diamond on the top face of the stone
Crown: The crown is the top part of the diamond that is measured from the surface of the table to the girdle
Girdle: The girdle is the widest edge of the diamond where the crown ends and meets the pavilion
Pavilion: The pavilion is the bottom part of the diamond that begins at the girdle and extends downward to the point of the culet
Culet: The culet is the tiny flat facet at the bottom tip of the diamond
Depth: The depth of a diamond refers to the total length of a diamond, measured from the culet to the table
Proportion, Symmetry and Polish
- Diamond Proportion
Diamond proportion refers to the relationship between the size, shape, and angle of each facet of a diamond. A wide range of combinations are possible, ultimately determining the diamond’s interaction with light.
When light strikes a diamond, approximately 20% immediately reflects off the surface (as glare). Of the 80% that enters, a portion will escape through the bottom of the diamond (where the observer cannot appreciate it). A well proportioned diamond will have each facet properly placed and angled so as to maximize the amount of light that reflects back out of the crown (top) of the diamond, to the eye of the observer.
To optimally capture light and reflect it back, a diamond’s pavilion must have accurate angles and depth. If the angle of the pavilion is too shallow or too deep, light will escape or leak out, creating dark and dull “stains”. The crown angle is also extremely important since this affects the way that light enters and exits the diamond.
Not only are the angles important, but depth percentage and table percentage are also key factors that contribute to the quality of a diamond’s cut. Depth percentage refers to the depth of the diamond divided by its diameter. Shallower diamonds have low depth percentages whereas deeper diamonds have higher depth percentages. A good target depth percentage for a round diamond is considered to fall between 59 and 62.5%. Table percentage refers to the width of the table divided by the diameter. Again, diamonds with a higher table percentage have larger tables, and diamonds with a smaller table percentage have smaller tables. A good table depth percentage for a round diamond is considered to fall between 53 and 59%.
- Diamond Symmetry
A diamond’s facets must be symmetrical in order to maximize the amount of light that enters and exits the stone. Diamonds with poor symmetry look slightly distorted, unbalanced and improperly shaped. Moreover, they will affect brilliance, scintillation and fire. Many asymmetrical round stones are not completely round, or have misshapen facets or off-centre culets.
- Diamond Polish
Once a diamond is cut, each facet of the diamond is polished. If the polishing is done improperly, it can leave scratches and streaks that are similar to the marks left behind after a car waxing. An Excellent diamond polish is a diamond which has very few or no scratches.
Ideal/ Excellent – Excellent light performance. Reflects almost all of the light that enters. Rare and extremely beautiful cuts.
Very Good – Very good light performance. Reflects almost all of the light that enters. Very Good diamond cuts are considered to be an outstanding value.
Good – Good light performance. Reflects most of the light that enters. Good diamond cuts are far less pricey than Very Good cuts.
Fair – Not as brilliant as a Good cuts or above, Fair diamond cuts are still considered good quality diamonds.
Poor – Poor cut diamonds are typically cut too shallow or too deep causing much of the light to leak out of the diamond’s sides and base.
Which Grade of Cut Should I Buy?
Cut grade is the most important factor in determining the overall appearance of a diamond, because a poorly cut diamond will seem dull even with excellent clarity and colour. Conversely, a well cut diamond can have a slightly lower colour (G-H) or clarity (SI1-SI2) and still look quite beautiful, due to its superior ability to create sparkle and brilliance.
For superior brilliance, choose a diamond with a Cut grade of Very Good or Excellent for round diamonds, and Good or better in fancy shape diamonds. When choosing a diamond in this range, make sure its Symmetry and Polish are Very Good or Excellent, so that the impact of the above average Cut is not obscured.
For those on a budget, primarily concerned with size, a diamond of Fair – Good cut may be an acceptable choice, especially in fancy shapes. While the diamond will lack the scintillation and brilliance of a well cut diamond, it will allow a significant increase in size for the same price.
Avoid Poor cut diamonds, even if size is the primary concern. Most find these diamonds to be an unacceptable trade off, despite the lower price.
The number one mistake made when purchasing a diamond is to be misled on cut quality. Cut is more difficult to define than color or clarity, and therefore often ignored or misrepresented. Common issues include:
- Being shown two or three diamonds of various cut qualities, in an effort to sell the best of the available options. While the customer may choose the best option shown, it is not necessarily a well cut diamond. It is simply the best of what is currently available at that particular store.
- Purchasing a deeply cut diamond. A deeply cut diamond carries more of its carat weight “hidden” in the depth of the diamond as opposed to the width. These poorly cut diamonds are less expensive per carat, and are common in most jewelry stores. A customer might purchase a 1.00 carat diamond that actually looks like a .90 carat diamond because it is too deeply cut.
- Because well cut diamonds are more expensive per carat than fair or good cuts, few are carried in traditional jewelry stores. Less than well cut diamonds cost less to purchase, less to inventory, can be sold at a lower price, and turn more quickly in the jeweler’s inventory – so the incentive to carry them is overwhelming.
- A diamond’s “cut” is different from its “shape.” “Shape” refers to the general outward appearance of the diamond, (such as round, emerald, or pear). “Cut” is a reference to its reflective qualities.
- If you opt to buy a diamond without a certificate, spend some time looking at certified diamonds (where you know the Cut Grade) and train your eyes to identify the better cuts (by their “sparkle”).
- Remember that observable fire is increased in a slightly darker room (such as a candle light). Conversely, scintillation is maximized in strongly lit areas (such as an office). Fire and scintillation are simultaneously maximized by very strong, pinpointed light sources (such as the spot lights prevalent in jewellery showrooms).
- Unlike the other “Cs” (carat weight, colour, and clarity), the various Cut grades in existence today were not originated by GIA, and are not uniformly applied. In fact, GIA has only been assigning cut grades since 2005, and only to round diamonds. Even though retailers use common terms to describe Cut (such as Excellent, Very Good, Fair, Poor) the terms are not uniformly defined or applied. In fact, a diamond seller may assign any cut grade they choose, based on any set of factors they wish.
When we speak of Colour in a diamond, we actually mean the degree of colourlessness. While most diamonds are white, not all are truly colourless. Many are tinted yellow to brown or silver to grey.
In a white diamond, the presence of a tint is considered undesirable. This colour impurity is caused by lingering traces of nitrogen, boron, hydrogen or other elements. Commonly, diamonds are affected solely by nitrogen traces, which create pale yellowish or brownish tints. Only diamonds composed of 100% pure carbon without any impurities may be completely colourless.
Diamonds are graded on a Whiteness scale or absence of colour scale. Basically, the whiter or clearer the colour of a diamond the greater its value.
The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) has devised a set of guidelines to grade diamond colour. The colour of graded diamonds is compared to that of control stones, which are preselected gems of a specific colour.
To be graded, diamonds must be loose stones, because once a diamond is set into metal the metal can affect its colour. Diamonds are placed table-down, pavilion-up and viewed with a 10X loupe under controlled lighting and precise viewing conditions. A lettering system from D to Z is used to identify the amount of colour present in each diamond, with D awarded only to rare, totally colourless diamonds. Many of these colour distinctions are so subtle that they are invisible to the untrained eye. But these slight differences make a very big difference in diamond quality and price.
WHY DOES THE GIA COLOUR GRADING SYSTEM START AT D?
Before GIA developed the D-Z Colour Grading Scale, a variety of other systems were loosely applied. These included letters of the alphabet (A, B and C, with multiple A’s for the best stones), Arabic (0, 1, 2, 3) and Roman (I, II, III) numerals and descriptions such as “gem blue” or “blue white.” The result of all these grading systems was inconsistency and inaccuracy. Because the creators of the GIA Colour Scale wanted to start fresh, without any association with earlier systems, they chose to start with the letter D—a letter grade normally not associated with top quality.
|1||D||Absolutely colourless. The highest colour grade, which is extremely rare.|
|2||E||Colourless. Very negligible traces of colour can be noticed by an expert gemmologist. A rare diamond.|
|3||F||Colourless. Very negligible colour traces can be seen by an expert gemmologist, but still considered a “colourless” grade. A high-quality diamond.|
|4||G-H||Near-colourless. Colour noticeable when compared to diamonds of better grades, but these grades offer excellent value.|
|5||I-J, K||Colour slightly detectable. An excellent value.|
|6||L-M||Noticeable colour. Not carried by Freesiaos|
|7||N-Z||Noticeable colour. Not carried by Freesiaos|
Fancy Coloured Diamonds
A few diamonds are exceptions and do not fall into the colour category set by GIA. They are referred to as the fancy coloured diamonds. The well-defined colours include pink, canary yellow, blue and green. Some are quite rare and hence expensive.
In a fancy colour diamond, intensity and hue of colour plays the most important role in deciding value. If a diamond has very intense colour and is rarely found, it can even be more expensive than colourless or white diamond.
Fancy yellow or brown diamonds are commonly available, so they are priced relatively less than colourless diamonds. On the other hand, pink, red, blue and green are very rare, and are valued more than colourless diamonds.
The intensity grading system for fancy colour diamonds differs than that of white diamonds. Unlike white diamonds, which range from the letter D-Z, fancy colour diamonds are graded by Light, Fancy Light, Fancy, Fancy Intense, Fancy Deep, Fancy Dark, and Fancy Vivid.
Fluorescence is another factor that can affect diamond colour.
This is an effect that is seen in some gem-quality diamonds when they are exposed to long-wave ultraviolet light (such as the lighting frequently seen in dance clubs). Under most lighting conditions, this fluorescence is not detectable to the eye. Since UV radiation is a component of daylight and is also present in fluorescent lit rooms, diamonds with this characteristic can appear to change colour quite often. While most gemologists prefer diamonds without this effect, some people enjoy it. It’s really just a matter of aesthetics.
Strong blue fluorescence can make a yellow coloured diamond appear more white, but in rare cases can cause a stone to appear milky or oily. This milky or oily effect is called an “over blue” and only applies to a small number of “strong” and “very strong” fluorescent stones. Stones that fluoresce yellow appear even more yellow under some lighting conditions.
It is common to find that diamonds with colourless grades (D-E-F) or near colourless grades (G-H-I-J) are lower in price when they exhibit fluorescence and faint yellow grades (K-L-M) are higher in price when exhibiting fluorescence.
What Colour Diamond Should I Choose?
The difference in appearance between colourless diamonds and near colourless diamonds may not be detectable, but the price difference from one colour grade to another can be significant. The purists at heart will always demand diamonds in the D-F range. By selecting diamonds in the G-I range, however, you can find a tremendous value while still achieving a “colourless” look.
If you find that you are sensitive to low colour grades, then we suggest you choose a diamond with the colour grade that satisfies you. However, if you have difficulty differentiating between different colour grades, then you may want to consider a nearly colourless diamond.
Some experts suggest getting a diamond that has a small amount of colour, which will soften the light and make it easier to view the entire spectrum of colour that is given off when the diamond scintillates.
If you are looking for a round brilliant diamond, you have a bit more flexibility in your colour grade, because the brilliance makes it more difficult to detect colour. In this instance, anything over I colour is usually more than adequate, and will appear completely colourless to the untrained eye unless held up against a diamond that is at least 3 colour grades above it, such as an F or E colour diamond.
Diamonds with pointed ends, specifically marquis, radiants, trillion, pear and sometimes even princess shaped diamonds tend to focus the colour on these points. In this case, it is usually best to stay with a colour grade of H and higher. However, if you have a pronged setting, the prongs will usually hide this colour concentration
In addition, when you are looking for multiple stones, such as loose diamonds for a 3-stone ring, it is important to make sure that the colour ranges are at least within 1 grade of each other.
If you are shopping on a budget or trying to maximize the size of your stone, then “J” diamonds are most affordable and still near colourless. You may also want to consider choosing a diamond with medium or strong fluorescence. Since these diamonds are discounted slightly in price you can often afford a higher colour stone without paying the premium.
- As diamond size increases, colour becomes more noticeable. This is especially important to keep in mind if purchasing a diamond of two carats or greater.
- The visible difference between diamonds of one colour grade, for example G to H or I to J, is so minor it is difficult to detect with the unaided eye. The cost savings, however, can be significant.
- Diamond shapes that reflect more light (i.e. have more sparkle), such as round or princess, can mask some colour in a diamond.
- The type of metal in which a diamond is set can complement its colour. Consider setting diamonds graded I or J in yellow gold. White gold or platinum best complement diamonds with a colour grade of D through H.
Clarity, or purity, is a diamond’s ability to let in light and reflect its brilliance. Of the Four Cs, Clarity is the easiest for you to evaluate and the most straightforward to understand.
We measure the clarity of a diamond by its size and the number of inclusions and blemishes in or on it. Inclusions are interior irregularities and blemishes are exterior irregularities. These imperfections are not flaws, but rather the natural fingerprint of every diamond. Often, we can see these only under a powerful microscope or jeweller’s loupe, and they do not visibly affect the appearance or beauty of a diamond.
Inclusions are flaws such as air bubbles, cracks, and non-diamond minerals found within the diamond, which are caused deep within the earth during its formation.
Large inclusions interfere with the dispersion of light and diminish the diamond’s brilliance. They also affect the durability of the diamond, reducing its resistance to fracture. Some inclusions are coloured and also influence the appearance of a diamond.
The larger or more numerous the inclusions the less valuable the diamond.
Blemishes are imperfections on a diamond’s exterior surface and include scratches, pits and chips. Some blemishes such as nicks, pits, trigons, and polishing lines—are a result of the cutting and polishing process. Depending on their location and size, most blemishes can be polished away, or the diamond can be re-cut to eliminate them.
Surface blemishes can affect a diamond’s clarity and value, but many blemishes have little or no impact on a diamond’s appearance.
Blemishes typically have less impact on a diamond’s value, beauty and grade since they rarely affect the strength and structure of the diamond.
Gemmologists’ grade the clarity of a diamond by examining it top-down with a 10x magnifying microscope. Imperfections located on or beneath the table of the diamond are easier to detect and affect clarity grade more than those located around the sides of the diamond. Larger marks, darker marks and deep marks will also significantly affect the clarity of the diamond.
The Gemological Institute of America’s (GIA) International Diamond Grading System™ is the globally recognized standard for diamond clarity assessment. With 11 grades, the system classifies a diamond’s clarity based on the nature, position and size of its inclusions and exclusions. The list below summarizes the GIA’s International Diamond Grading System.
- FL Flawless: Flawless diamonds have no inclusions or blemishes detectable under 10x magnification, and are extremely rare.
- IF Internally Flawless: Internally flawless diamonds have no detectable inclusions but some surface blemishes under 10x magnification, and are rare and very valuable.
- VVS1/VVS2 Very Very Slightly Included: Inclusions and blemishes are extremely difficult for a even a skilled grader to detect under 10x magnification
- VS1/VS2 Very Slightly Included: Inclusions and blemishes are detectable under 10x magnification, but are minor flaws that do not impact the diamond’s beauty and are frequently invisible to the naked eye.
- SI1/SI2 Slightly Included: Inclusions and blemishes are easily noticeable under 10x magnification and may also be visible to the naked eye.
- I1, I2, I3 Included: Inclusions and blemishes are obvious under 10x magnification and typically visible to the naked eye. These flaws may negatively impact the transparency and or brilliance of the diamond.
What Clarity Grade Should I Choose?
Freesiaos suggests that you work within your budget to select a diamond with the least amount of inclusions and blemishes, qualities which will negatively impact the value and durability of your diamond.
Diamonds with the least amount of flaws hold the highest clarity grading. Flawless diamonds are extremely rare and considered to be the most beautiful of all diamond grades. Because they are so scarce diamond experts consider Internally Flawless diamonds (IF) to be the most valuable examples of near-perfection in the international diamond market.
Many diamond purists insist on FL or IF diamonds, believing that these diamonds are 100% flawless; however, it is important to note that this is not the case. Almost all diamonds have some flaws. FL and IF diamonds simply have no flaws detectable under 10x magnification.
While FL/IF diamonds are the rarest, a diamond does not have to be graded so to be stunning. An “eye-clean” diamond – one that has no imperfections visible to the unaided eye – is an excellent value. SI and VS diamonds are typically considered clarity grades of fantastic value since their inclusions are minor and invisible to the unaided eye.
When looking at diamonds with many facets and a highly brilliant cut, such as round brilliants, there is absolutely no visible difference between a stone that is graded flawless and one graded SI, even though the SI is 7 grades lower. It is much less rare, but no less beautiful.
Fancy shaped and step cut diamonds, such as Emerald or Asscher, are designed with fewer facets and larger tables that emphasize transparency over sparkle, and inclusions in them are easier to detect with the naked eye. Therefore, we recommend choosing a fancy shaped diamond with a clarity grade no lower than VS2.
As diamond size increases, the size of the facets also increases. Because facets are essentially windows into a diamond, the importance of purchasing a diamond with a higher clarity grade increases. For diamonds over 2 carats, a clarity grade of VS2 or higher is the safest bet for avoiding any signs of visible inclusions. In diamonds between 1 and 2 carats, clarity grades of SI1 or better will not have inclusions easily visible to the naked eye.
- In diamonds under 1 carat, clarity should be considered the least important of the traditional 4 Cs. You can opt for a lower clarity range in exchange for a higher cut or colour grade.
- If you cannot tolerate imperfections, even those you cannot see, choose a VVS2 or better diamond. About 10% of all diamonds sold fall into this category.
- If, while shopping for a diamond, you are ever given a clarity range (e.g. SI1-SI2) as opposed to a specific grade, the diamond is not certified by GIA. The seller is only estimating the diamond’s clarity using GIA terminology.
- If your budget is tight, it might be possible to purchase a diamond with a visible imperfection, but hide it beneath prongs or bezels where it will not be seen.
- If you intend to wear the diamond on a regular basis, it is not advisable to wear FL or IF diamonds, as continuous wear and tear will reduce the clarity of these diamonds.
- Watch out for clarity enhancement techniques such as fracture filling and laser drills, which are used to lessen the impact of inclusions.
A carat is the unit of weight by which a gemstone is measured. The carat-weight of a diamond is the easiest measurement of the 4C’s to determine. Carat-weight is not a factor which denotes the quality of a diamond, but merely its size by weight.
The word “carat” derives from the carob seeds that people used in ancient times to balance scales. So uniform in shape and weight are these little seeds that even today’s sophisticated instruments cannot detect more than three one-thousandths of a difference between them.
“Carat” is not to be confused with “karat,” which is used to indicate the purity of gold.
One carat is subdivided into 100 “points”. Therefore a diamond measuring 75 points is 3/4 carat in weight, or 0.75ct. There are five carats in a gram.
The size of a diamond is proportional to the carat-weight of a diamond. When rough diamonds are cut and polished into finished diamonds, as much as 2/3 of the total carat-weight may be lost. Since larger rough gems of high quality are found less frequently than smaller rough gems of high quality, a single two carat diamond will be more expensive than 2 one carat diamonds of the same quality. However, two diamonds of equal carat-weight can differ greatly in value due to their cut, color, and clarity.
Carat-weight by itself will not reflect a diamond’s size. Instead, two other factors must be considered:
- Distance across the top of the diamond measured in millimetres
Since a diamond is viewed from top when set into a ring or pendant, it is essential to determine the distance across the top of a diamond. A deeply cut diamond has a greater proportion of its total weight “hidden” in the depth, resulting in a smaller diameter than a well cut diamond.
- The cut grade of a diamond
The amount of light reflected from a diamond depends on its cut grade. Hence, when a diamond is well cut, maximum light is reflected from the top and makes it appear larger. It is therefore possible to get a diamond of lower carat but with higher cut grade and vice versa.
Carat is abbreviated to “ct” or “CT” when describing a single stone. “TCW,” meaning “total carat weight,” is added when jewellery is set with multiple diamonds.
It has to be noted that the carat weight does not refer to exactly one figure. It comprises of stones within a certain weight range. For example:
1 carat – Stones in weight range of 0.95 ct to 1.05 ct
0.75 carat – Stones in weight range of 0.72 ct to 0.76 ct
0.50 carat – Stones in weight range of 0.47 ct to 0.56 ct
0.25 carat – Stones in weight range of 0.23 ct to 0.26 ct
This holds true for all carat weight figures.
What Carat-Weight Is Right For Me?
This question has no direct answer. It really depends. Differences in size are clearly visible even to the untrained eye, and weight clearly does matter because it influences cost significantly.
However, size alone does not guarantee beauty. The quality of a diamond in cut, grade, and diameter should also be considered.
In deciding the importance of carat weight, it is vital to take into account the recipient’s preferences. If the dream is a one carat diamond, even the most beautiful half carat stone will be a disappointment. If a large carat weight is an important factor, but there is a strict budget, consider a diamond with a good cut, SI1-SI2 clarity, and an I or J colour grade. This will make room for a higher carat weight.
If quality is the primary factor, once the cut, colour, and clarity grade have been selected, it is easy to determine the carat-weight of the diamond that will fit within your budget.
- Diamond prices jump at the full- and half-carat weights. Diamonds just below these weights cost significantly less, and, because carat weight is distributed across the entirety of the diamond, small size differences are almost impossible to detect visually.
- Remember that slender fingers make small diamonds look bigger.
- Think about what sort of setting will hold the diamond. The setting you choose must be able to fit the carat-weight of your diamond.
The shape of a diamond is its geometrical appearance, which includes proportions, finish and symmetry. Shape along with cut defines the unique characteristics of a diamond.
The following are popular shapes of diamonds:
One of the most popular shapes, a round brilliant-cut diamond has 58 facets, which are divided among the crown, girdle and pavilion. A round-cut diamond is very versatile and can accommodate changes in cut, colour and clarity, while retaining its fire and brilliance.
A princess-cut diamond is square shaped with pointed corners. Usually, the corner is embellished with triangular stones. Princess-cut diamonds vary considerably in being square or rectangular.
In emerald-cut diamonds, the pavilion is cut with rectangular facets for a unique optical appearance. This cut clearly shows the clarity of the diamond owing to the large open table.
A slight variation of the emerald-cut diamond is the Asscher cut, which is also known as the ‘Modified Square Emerald cut’. This cut comprises of a small rectangular table, high crown, deep pavilion, and cut corners. In terms of sparkle, this cut ranks alongside the round brilliant-cut diamond.
A marquise-cut diamond is elongated in shape and is named after the Marquise de Pompadour. This diamond looks beautiful when used as a solitaire on a ring and makes the finger look slender.
An oval-cut diamond has brilliance similar to a round-cut diamond. It resembles a marquise-cut diamond but with curved edges.
A radiant-cut diamond is a popular choice for jewellery since it has trimmed corners. It can either be a square or rectangular in shape with 70 facets, which can deliver the brilliance similar to a round-cut diamond.
A sparkling teardrop, a pear–cut diamond has a single point and rounded end. It is a combination of an oval and marquise cut. While choosing pear-cut diamonds, look for a length-to-width ratio between 1.45 and 1.75.
A pear-cut diamond with a cleft at the top forms the heart-cut diamond. A typical heart with 59-facet symmetry has high degree of fire and brilliance, which makes it sparkle brilliantly.
Cushion-cut diamonds, also called pillow-cut or candlelight diamonds, have rounded corners and larger facets to improve the brilliance. In this cut, the diamond’s clarity is well highlighted owing to its larger facets.
Diamonds have inflamed man’s passions since the first moment at which they were discovered, and their power over emotions and desires has only grown since then. As a timeless and beautiful gift to yourself or as an emblem of your commitment to another, a diamond is an excellent investment.
However, all diamonds are not equal. When purchasing a diamond, it is important to consider its cut, clarity, color, and carat weight. These factors affect not only the appearance and quality of a diamond, but also its price.
Diamond grading covers numerous aspects of each individual diamond’s qualities. Quality assessments regarding grading are made by independent gemologists’ labs, such as GIA or AGS, and are recognized worldwide. The diamond is evaluated, measured, and scrutinized using trained eyes, a jeweler’s loupe, a microscope, and other industry tools, and these labs provide each diamond they examine with a report or “certificate”.
A certificate is a “blueprint” of a diamond, and tells you the diamond’s exact measurements and weight, as well as the details of its clarity, color, polish, symmetry, cut and quality. It precisely points out all the individual characteristics of the stone. Certificates also serve as proof of the diamond’s identity and value.
A certificate is not the same thing as an appraisal. A certificate describes the quality of a diamond, but it does not place a monetary value on the gem. An appraisal places a monetary value on your diamond, but does not certify the quality of the diamond.
Before purchasing a diamond, you should expect to review a copy of its certificate as proof that it has undergone an unbiased, professional examination.
A certified diamond comes with a diamond grading report guaranteed by an accredited gem lab. This report assures the customer that the diamond is independently recognized as possessing all the qualities specified by that report. When you buy a certified diamond, you are getting a diamond with beauty and pedigree. You have tangible, legal assurances as to the particular nature and quality of the diamond you are purchasing.
An uncertified diamond is not accompanied by a diamond grading report, and therefore its stated quality is based only on the word of the seller. It is not necessarily a bad diamond; certainly, it can be as beautiful as its certified counterpart.
However, we encourage our customers to buy certified diamonds for the following reasons:
- Shopping for certified diamonds allows you to make an informed choice about your selections, and to comparison shop. You can compare one diamond with a particular weight and quality with other diamonds of similar weight and quality to determine which the better value is. With uncertified diamonds, it is difficult to determine whether the quality assessments of one jeweler will be as stringent and precise as the judgments of other jewelers; that is, not all jewelers may agree about the quality of an uncertified diamond.
- A diamond grading report adds an increased comfort-level to your purchase. Because the quality of your purchase has been independently verified, you can feel assured that you have made a wise purchase and that you have received exactly what you have paid for
- The quality assessments in a certificate are used by appraisers to determine the insurance or replacement value of your diamond. If you purchase an uncertified diamond, there is no guarantee that the appraiser will value your diamond at the same level at which the jeweler who sold it to you did.
How do reports from various independent labs compare with one another?
Acquaint yourself with gemological labs before purchasing your diamond. Lab reputations may vary and change over time. Popular labs that certify diamonds and gemstones include:
- Gemological Institute of America (GIA): Many in the diamond industry consider GIA the gold standard of diamond graders.GIA grading reports have been considered to be a hallmark of integrity throughout the diamond world. Established in 1931, the not-for-profit GIA has its headquarters in Carlsbad, California and has a presence in a number of locations worldwide.
- International Gemological Institute (IGI): IGI grades diamonds and gemstones from its headquarters in New York and several other U.S. locations.
- American Gem Society Laboratories (AGSL): Founded in 1978, the AGSL is based in Las Vegas, Nevada.
- European Gemological Laboratory USA (EGL-US): There are a few independently owned grading labs that carry the EGL name. EGL-US certificates. EGL-US has been independently owned since 1986, and is based in New York.
- HRD (Hoge Raad voor Diamant) : An HRD Antwerp certificate represents the hallmark of authentic European quality and allows any consumer to purchase diamonds or jewellery in full confidence.
These are considered the industry leaders, and the final word on gem quality, among diamond dealers worldwide. They are known for their consistency and unbiased diamond grading systems. Diamonds that are accompanied by these grading reports are the most highly valued in the industry.
While plenty of other independent labs exist, some are a bit lax in their assessments of diamond quality and do not command the same respect for consistency and quality of grading that GIA and AGS do.
Buying a diamond is an important decision. The diamond holds some special meaning or marks an occasion in our lives. So, it’s critical to know all about the diamond you are buying and how it is graded or evaluated.
Diamond grading is the evaluation of various aspects of an individual diamond. Grading determines how a particular diamond scores on the 4Cs of Cut, Colour, Clarity & Carat. There are additional ratings and measurements noted on a diamond certificate, but they generally fall under the diamond’s grade in one of the Four Cs. Grading is undertaken by independent gem labs such as the GIA or AGS. Their grading and standards are recognized and accepted worldwide.
The GIA in particular is considered to set the standards for the industry.
Great care is taken to authenticity of the grading process. Diamonds do not bear any identification mark of their source, they are distributed randomly to highly trained graders at each step of the grading process, to ensure objectivity and integrity. Graders then grade the stone using gemology instruments including microscopes, a jeweller’s loupe and other industry tools.
Do remember that graders certify diamonds using powerful tools, most of the grading differences cannot be made out by the untrained eye!
You’ve chosen your diamond with all the care possible. You love the way your precious piece sparkles and shines. Guess what, with a little regular effort, your diamond will stay at its brightest for years to come.
Cleaning of diamonds
Diamonds are set in metal and due to regular usage/exposure your diamond jewellery will gather dust and film. To remove this, your diamond jewellery needs regular cleaning.
- Wipe your jewellery every now and then with a clean, lint free cloth. This will keep the surface clear & clean.
- Soak and clean your jewellery regularly, especially if you wear it daily. Soak it overnight in a solution of warm water & mild detergent or warm water with a few drops of ammonia.
- Use an old toothbrush, eyebrow or lipstick brush to clean. These bristles are small and will get under the diamond to remove oil &dust. Do not rub to hard, or you may scratch the metal setting.
- Use a strainer to rinse off diamond jewellery, especially rings. Remember those movie scenes where the ring goes down the sink! Dry with a clean cloth.
- Instead of ammonia or detergent, you can use any special jewellery cleaning liquid available at jewellers. Read labels carefully before buying.
- Every year or so, give your diamond jewellery for professional cleaning. Jewellers use ultra sonic or steam cleaning and will also check the setting, so that the stone does not fall out.
Usage of diamond jewellery
Diamonds are the hardest gems known to man, but a hard blow may scratch the stone or chip it. Plus the metal setting of the diamond may get similarly affected and the stone may spring loose.
So it’s a good idea to keep the following in mind:
Avoid wearing diamond jewellery while swimming or washing dishes. Prolonged contact with water may loosen the stone from the setting, while chemicals in the cleaning agent/pool may affect the metal.
Remove diamond jewellery while applying lotion, oiling your hair or going for a massage! The cream/oil will settle on and under the stone, making the diamond dull, worse still, loosening it from the setting.
Storage of diamond jewellery
Storing jewels together may cause one piece to scratch the other. Always keep different pieces separately. Fabric lined cases with partitions are the best to store diamond jewellery.
Pendants have been around since the Stone Age, when the pendant consisted of shells and bones. Second only to the diamond ring,diamond pendants are probably the most gifted diamond ornament the world over, symbolizing everlasting love and beauty.
A bracelet/bangle is the easiest piece of jewelry to wear – it needs no piercings, is forgiving of sizing, and adds panache and glamour to any outfit. Whatever your style is, there are bracelets/bangles out there to match it that will fit you, whatever size wrist you may have.
How should you choose the bracelet/bangle that suits you best? Consider the size of the wrist and the tone of your skin.
If you have long slender arms and wrists, chunky bracelets/bangles and cuffs will highlight them. If you are bigger boned in the arms and wrists, wired styles will slenderize them.
When choosing a bracelet/bangle, keep in mind your wrist size. The standard women’s bracelet length is 7 inches. Women’s bangles are 7 inches in length with a 2.5-inch diameter. Longer and shorter bracelets are also available. A bracelet that fits well will drape around the wrist without slipping onto the hand or getting in the way.
The tone of your skin can be complimented by the right gemstones and metals.
Determining your skin tone is simple. Locate a body area where veins are visible – the wrist serves the purpose. Based on the color of the veins, skin tone is generally classified as cool, warm or neutral.
Cool Skin Tone: If you identify bluish colored veins and pink or rose red undertones, then you have a cool skin tone.
Warm Skin Tone: Green veins and yellow or yellow or golden-apricot undertones define warm skin tone.
Neutral Skin Tone: This is characterized by predominant pink, yellow or olive undertones.
Jewellery that matches your Skin Tone
Cool: You can play it safe with white gold, platinum and silver jewellery. Diamonds and pearls work best, as do gemstones of pink, purple, blue, red and magenta.
Warm: Choose gold jewellery or gold toned pearls over white gold or platinum. Gemstones with earthy tones in brown, orange, green, yellow, peach and turquoise are a good choice.
Neutral: Lucky for you! Gold, platinum and white gold can be worn, but try to avoid too much yellow or too much blue. Gemstones in white, green, rose pink, brown, soft grey can all be worn without any hesitation.
The in-line thin diamond bracelet that features a symmetrical pattern of diamonds is called a tennis bracelet. In 1987 Chris Evert, the former World No. 1 woman tennis player and the winner of 18 Grand Slam singles title swore an elegant, light bracelet, made by George Bedewi, which accidentally broke and the match was interrupted to allow Chris to recover her precious diamonds. This “tennis bracelet” incident sparked a new name for the item and sparked a huge jewellery trend.
A charm bracelet carries personal charms: decorative pendants or trinkets which are signifiers of important things in the wearer’s life. Recently, Italian charm bracelets have become trendy. While traditional charms dangle, Italian charms feature individual pieces soldered flat onto the surface of the link.
Bracelets that are in firm, solid form are referred to as bangles or bangle bracelets. They can be smooth, textured or set with stones.
These bracelets are made from connecting or linking various or similar components or jewellery findings. Link bracelets can be made of a variety of materials included metals and gemstones.
Finger rings are the most commonly worn pieces of jewellery, and many have significance beyond ornamental. Some rings are by their nature symbolic, while others take on added symbolism depending on the finger you wear them on. Apart from the most popular engagement and wedding rings, and the everyday casual and party rings, there are special rings for friendship, motherhood, affiliation, office and commemoration.
While being so universally used, rings also require the most care in choosing. You must decide upon the best style and size for your finger, and select your preferred design, metal and stones keeping in mind your allocated budget.
The Different Kinds of Rings
A ring given to and worn by a woman signifying her engagement to be married. Typically a man will spend one or two months’ salary on a ring and purchase the ring in advance. Or, as part of an increasing modern custom, a couple will choose the engagement ring together. Whilst this may spoil the surprise, the future bride has the opportunity to select the correct size of her ring as well as her preferred gemstone, setting and band.
A ring presented in a marriage ceremony to signify marital commitment. Originally worn only by the woman, it is now common for both spouses to wear such a ring. The wedding ring is usually worn on the third finger on the left hand and can be made from gold, white gold, silver or other metals such as platinum or titanium. Men’s wedding rings tend to be larger and weigh more than women’s wedding rings. As these rings are designed to be worn for life, it is important that you choose a metal that you are comfortable wearing. Also consider engravings or inscriptions on your wedding rings. These can be simple engravings such as your names or the wedding date, or a personal message for you to cherish.
Forever, for eternity, this special ring is reserved for everlasting love. The eternity ring is easily identified by a circle of gemstones all around the outer band of the ring. A half-eternity ring has gemstones covering half of the outer band – these are more readily available and are popular gifts between family and close friends. Eternity rings can be worn on any finger but are mostly found as well as, or instead of, an engagement or wedding ring on the third finger of the left hand.
A dress ring, dinner ring, cocktail ring or fashion ring can be worn every day and for any occasion. Although dress rings are typically large and vibrant, set with glittering precious and semi-precious gemstones, some dress rings are more subtle and reserved with plain bands and simple designs.
The wishbone ring takes its name from its likeness to the chicken wishbone. It is similar to a circular ring, however has indentations. The wishbone ring is also known as an “M” ring or “W” ring, depending on how it is worn. Wishbone rings can be plain or contain gemstones and are popular with women as their unique shape can be flattering and appear to elongate the hand. Wishbone rings can be interlocked together to create a beautiful and glamorous effect.
Earrings spice up any outfit and add elegance to your appearance. The right earrings have the potential to completely change your appearance. Whether you adorn simple studs or cling on to dazzling danglers, their sparkling gems and precious metals brighten the face instantly. Besides the common types of earrings and their backings, this guide will help you home in the right pair based on your facial features, skin tone and more.
Types of earrings
Studs are earrings worn close to the ear. Studs usually have a stem which is pushed through the piercing in the ear. Studs are held in place by removable backings. Some studs are threaded and have a screw type of backing to secure them, while some are secured with a push-on clip. Studs are the idea designs for Big, expensive gemstones.
Earrings that drop just below the ear lobe are called drops. Drops usually have a wire hook, and an ornamental piece from which the gemstone drops. Drops are versatile and suit all age groups.
Charm drops are a type of drop earrings. These trendy earrings come in different shapes, colors and lengths and typically hang from hooks or simple chains.
Danglers are earrings which hang from the ear. They can be one centimeter in length or go down to brush the shoulder! Danglers usually have hooks or can have a small metallic stud with a push-on or a threaded screw back. Diamond danglers are considered to be extra special!
Hoops resemble rings and are typically circular or semi-circular in shape. Hoops use a tube kind of backing which attaches one part of the circle to the other, called the saddle or latch backing. In hoops where the circle is not complete, normal backings (such as those used for studs) are used. Hoops are stylish and complement any kind of clothing.
Huggies as the name suggests Huggies ‘hug’ the ear. These earrings are worn close and they encircle the ear. Huggies are popular and come in many shapes and sizes.
Gold has been one of mankind’s most revered substances since the beginning of time. The legends and myths surrounding gold are legendary and for many ancient civilizations, only the most powerful were permitted to wear it.
Today though, the glamour and beauty of gold, while remaining as desirable as ever, are far more democratic.
An enduring element found naturally in a distinct yellow color, gold is resistant to rust, tarnish, and corrosion. Although it is very strong, it is also the most malleable of all precious metals.
Pure gold is known as 24K gold, but most jewellery is made from either 18K gold, 14K gold or 10K gold. This is because pure gold is too soft for everyday wear, so it is alloyed with a mixture of metals like silver, copper, nickel, and zinc to give it strength and durability.
Karatage, denoted by a number followed by “k” indicates the purity, or how much gold there is in the metal in a piece of jewellery. It is expressed in 24ths, making 24k gold, 100% gold. 18k gold is composed of 75% gold, and 14k gold is composed of 58.3% gold and 41.7% of other metals.
The following shows the Karatage preferred for jewellery:
- 24 karat Gold equals 100% pure Gold -too soft for jewellery
- 22 karat Gold equals 91.7% Gold – still too soft for jewellery, but popular in certain parts of the world.
- 18k Gold equals 75% Gold – very popular for higher end jewellery, good balance of strength and value
- 14 karat Gold equals 58.3% Gold – extremely popular for jewellery. Good balance of durability and value.
- 12 karat Gold equals 50% Gold – not used for jewellery
- 10 karat Gold equals 41.7% Gold – lowest Gold content that can be legally marked as Gold. Not acceptable for jewellery
Sometimes, gold of a lower karatage is plated in higher-karat gold to enhance its colour. This is perfectly acceptable as long as the jeweller discloses this fact and you pay a fair price. Keep in mind that gold plating will wear off over time and your jewellery may need to be re-plated.
To determine the karatage of a particular piece of jewellery, look for the quality mark. Generally, pieces will either bear the stamp of their karatage based on the U.S. or European system. The U.S. system uses karat designations (24K, 18K, 14K, 10K, etc.) Europe uses number designations which correspond to the percentage of gold content. For instance, 10K is marked “417” for 41.7% gold; 14K is marked “585” for 58.5% gold; 18K is marked “750” for 75% gold, etc.
The colour of gold is determined by two factors:
- The type of metal alloys included
- The percentage of each metal alloy
While yellow gold is still probably the most popular colour of gold, by mixing gold with other alloys, jewellers can create stunning golden shades. White gold, pink gold, rose gold, orange gold and even green gold are just some of the many colours of gold.
Gold has a warm yellow colour in its purest form. Even when it is alloyed with other metals, such as copper with a red hue, and silver featuring a green hue, an expert mixture will retain its signature warmth.The richness of the Gold colour is directly affected by the percentage of Gold in its alloys: therefore, 18k Gold has a richer Gold colour than 14k Gold.
A silvery white character is what makes white gold jewellery so appealing. In order to make the gold white, it is combined with metal alloys that are white in nature and plated with an extremely hard element called rhodium. Although strong, rhodium may wear away over time. Replating is a simple process that can be done to restore whiteness to your jewellery
White Gold with Black Rhodium
Black rhodium is plated to white gold creating a rich black appearance that is extremely hard and strong. As with traditional white rhodium, black rhodium may wear away over time. Replating will restore your jewellery’s black finish.
The beautiful pink hue of rose gold jewellery is created by using a copper alloy. The overall percentages of metal alloys is the same for rose gold as it is for yellow or white, but there is just a different mixture of alloys used.
BIS Hallmarking & Certification
Hallmarking of gold jewellery is on a voluntary basis under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986, in accordance with the Vienna Convention’s international criteria on hallmarking.
A Hallmark consists of five components –
- The BIS Mark
- The fineness number (corresponding to given Karatage)
- The Assaying and Hallmarking Centre’s mark
- The jeweller’s mark
- The year of marking denoted by a code letter and decided by BIS (e.g. the code letter ‘A’ was approved by BIS for the year 2000, ‘B’ being used for the year 2001 and ‘C’ for 2002).
The marking is done either using punches or laser marking machine.
The BIS hallmark, a mark of conformity widely accepted by the consumer bestows the additional confidence to the consumer on the purity of gold jewellery.
A jeweller desirous of obtaining a license can apply to the BIS for use of the Hallmark on their jewellery. After registration, BIS officials conduct a preliminary inspection for verification of retailing/manufacturing premises, testing facilities and competence of testing personnel. A sample is drawn from the jeweller’s retail/manufacturing premises for independent testing. Based on a satisfactory preliminary inspection report and test report of the sample drawn during inspection, a license is granted to the jeweler.
Once licensed, the jeweler has to follow a BIS approved scheme of testing and inspection on a continuing basis to confirm the homogeneity and purity of the gold jewelry offered for hallmarking.
A BIS certified jeweler should register with any of the BIS recognized Assaying and Hallmarking Centers to have his jewelry hallmarked.
BIS maintains surveillance on certified jewellers at a defined periodicity. Market surveillance involves collection of hallmarked gold jewellery from licensee’s retail outlet/manufacturing premises and having it tested for conformity in BIS recognized Hallmarking Centre.
Deviations in degree of purity of fine metal and observance of operations not in conformance to the system may result in cancellation of BIS license, and invoke legal proceedings for penalties under the BIS Act, Rules and Regulations.
The principal objective of assaying and hallmarking is to protect a consumer against victimization of irregular gold quality.
Price of Gold Jewelry
In addition to the karat weight and market value of gold, several other factors determine the price of Gold jewellery. These factors include, but are not limited to, total weight of the jewellery, design and construction, and ornamental detailing such as engraving and the finish of the metal. Although nearly all Gold jewelry today is made with the help of special machines, some hand work is almost always involved, and the more hand work that is involved, the higher the price.
If treated carefully, the gold jewelry item you purchase today could last a lifetime and might even be handed down to future generations. So here are some tips that will help preserve the beauty of your gold jewelry.
First of all, gold is lasting and durable but can get scratched or dented if treated roughly. This is particularly true of items worn on the hands like rings and bracelets that are prone to a lot of knocks. So remove these pieces before any type of strenuous activity.
Second, beware of chemicals. Gold’s worst enemy is chlorine. Repeated exposure can weaken gold’s structure, eventually leading to breakage. So keep your gold jewelry away from chlorinated cleaning products and out of swimming pools and Jacuzzi.
On a related note, acids, abrasives and other harsh chemicals found in some common household cleaning solutions can weaken your jewelry or damage its finish. So it’s best to cover up rings and bracelets with rubber gloves while doing heavy-duty cleaning. Or better yet, take them off altogether.
Gold can lose its luster over time if repeatedly exposed to dust, moisture, perspiration and makeup. So make sure to clean your jewelry regularly. You can use a cleaning solution of sudsy, lukewarm water, or bring it to your local jeweler and have it professionally steam-cleaned. After cleaning and rinsing, always dry and polish jewelry with a chamois or soft cloth to avoid scratches and bring out its shine.
Proper storage is as important as cleaning. Protect your gold jewelry by storing it safely in a jewelry box or keeping it wrapped in a soft cloth when not being worn. Furthermore, keeping pieces stored separately will prevent them from getting tangled or scratching one another.
Finally, always inspect your gold jewelry for weakness or damage and bring it to a professional jeweler you trust for immediate repair. Pay particular attention to clasps (to ensure they catch easily but are still secure); prongs (to ensure they haven’t cracked, bent or loosened, which could cause the stone to fall out); bracelet and neck chain links (to ensure they don’t kink or bend); pin backs and earring posts (to see if they are bent or loose); and wedding bands, pendants and charms (dangling pieces and items worn every day for a long period of time) are subject to wear and can thin out and eventually break. Your jeweler will be able to handle these and many other repair jobs and ultimately restore your gold jewelry for you.
Called the “King of Metals”, platinum is a very heavy (nearly twice the weight of gold), silver-white metal that is very ductile. Although it is a soft metal, platinum is not easily scratched, never tarnishes, and is very strong and durable. It is the strongest precious metal used in jewellery, and has good resistance to corrosion and chemical attack.
Platinum is also the only precious metal used in fine jewellery that is up to 95 percent pure. Small amounts of iridium and ruthenium are commonly added to it, to give it a harder, stronger alloy that retains the advantages of pure platinum.
Platinum’s subtle beauty and its tendency to not add colour of its own, enhances a diamond’s natural brilliance and fire, making it an excellent metal for diamond jewellery settings. It does not change shape or wear away so precious stones are held firmly and securely.
Because of its purity, platinum is naturally hypoallergenic, a plus for people with sensitive skin or allergies to certain metals.
Today, platinum is more valuable than gold. Although it is used in many industrial applications, including the automotive industry, platinum jewellery consistently commands higher prices because of its rarity.
When judging the value of platinum jewellery, always ensure that the material is indeed platinum (and not another metal, such as white gold) by checking for the amount of platinum content on the back of the piece. Platinum content is usually marked as “950Pt”, “950 Plat”, or “Plat”. In the United States, in order to be marked “Platinum” or “Plat”, a piece of jewellery must contain at least 95% platinum
Sizing platinum rings is difficult. The great amount of heat necessary to work with platinum is not practical for local jewellers to work with. What they do instead is use a 14K white solder, which turns into a black line on the bottom of a ring. The best way to size a platinum ring is by using modern laser technology, which only a handful of companies offer directly to consumers.
Platinum and White Gold
Platinum is usually compared to white gold in jewellery. Both appear the same, with a silver metallic look that shines more than yellow gold. However there are some major differences between the two.
Platinum is naturally white, with purity of 95%. White gold, which is typically either 75% or 58.5% gold, is then rhodium plated to provide a white finish. The thin plating usually needs to be replaced over time to maintain its white colour.
Platinum is not susceptible to problems with stress, corrosion or stress cracking, as can be the case with white gold. (This problem mainly applies to prong settings etc.)
Platinum is denser than gold, so an identical ring made in platinum rather than 14kt gold would be around 60% heavier and 40% heavier than a ring made in 18kt gold.
Platinum’s rarity means that its price is invariably higher than that of gold.
The process of making a piece of platinum jewellery also requires a higher level of craftsmanship.
So what should you purchase?
For high wear items like rings and bracelets, or items that will be worn daily, platinum is the better choice.
For all-white gold and fashion jewellery like a bracelet or necklace, then rhodium plating will actually be best, as it will look very white and most likely never need to be re-plated.
For two tone wedding rings, we strongly suggest a platinum + yellow gold combination. It will be more expensive to size, but will not require additional rhodium plating or much maintenance.
Platinum is very easy to care for.
Soaking platinum in a mild solution of soap and warm water and gently scrubbing it with a soft-bristled brush is usually all that is required to maintain the metal’s lustre.
While it is the strongest of jewellery metals, platinum can scratch. However, the metal is only displaced, not lost Many people prefer the patina of wear unique to platinum. Have your platinum jewellery polished if you are interested in maintaining a high shine. In the mean time, buffing with a soft cloth can give your jewellery renewed lustre.
Look for a qualified jeweller or platinum trained bench worker for all adjustments, resizing, polishing and cleaning.
As with any piece of jewellery, avoid wearing it when doing housework or gardening. It is also advisable not to handle bleach or harsh chemicals when wearing your jewellery. Although they won’t hurt the platinum, chemicals may discolour diamonds or gemstones.
Avoid placing your platinum jewellery with other pieces that can scratch it. Store pieces separately, in a jewellery box or chamois bag.
Gemstones By Months
Gemstone – just like diamond the cut , color, clarity and size that accounts for their purchase.
Gemstones as birthstones have an influence on the wearer life. The concept of birthstones was first found in the Gregorian Calendar. It was believed that a person’s energy and power was enhanced when the birthstone gem was worn. Birthstones were chosen based on the qualities associated with the month. So depending on when you were born, pick up an elegant piece with your birthstone on it and wear it for luck.
Garnet – January
The garnet gets its name from ‘Granatum’ or pomegranate seeds, which it closely resembles. Although the red wine-coloured garnet is most popular, garnets actually come in all shades of the rainbow – except blue. That’s why January borns are considered to be multi-faceted, with a wide range of skills and talents! The different colours of a garnet resonate with different energies and are believed to help with different issues: Green for mediation and focus; Orange for commitment; Purple for mental stability and Red for passion, self confidence, creativity and reflection. Freesiaos has the classic red garnet in a stunning range of earrings, pendants & rings for January borns.
The Amethyst is a transparent form of quartz found in purple or violet shades. In fact, February’s birthstone defines the colour purple for all gemstones. A much coveted gem, Amethysts have been worn by the people in power for over centuries. Its rich purple shade denoted royalty and class. Many powers are attributed to the Amethyst. The two most popular being – that it protects the wearer against seduction. And two, it prevents the wearer from getting drunk. In fact, the very word ‘amethystos’ in ancient Greek meant – not intoxicated. If your special day falls in February, you can choose rich purple Amethyst in elegant designs at Freesiaos
Aquamarine – March
The Aquamarine is a transparent variety of beryl, found in an extraordinarily beautiful range of light blue shades. The blue of Aquamarine is a divine, eternal colour, because it is the colour of the sky and of water. The name Aquamarine comes from the Latin ‘aqua’ (water) and ‘mare’ (sea). Considered the sailor’s lucky stone, many legends revolve around the Aquamarine, including one about its origin in the treasure chest of mermaids! March borns can rejoice, for Aquamarine is associated with many positive attributes including love, happy marriage, joy and wealth! Now that’s what we call an ideal birthday gift! Freesiaos has captured the light blue of Aquamarine in rings, earrings & pendants.
Diamond – April
What can we say about Diamonds that hasn’t been said or felt over hundreds of years? The world’s most magnificent gem is April’s birthstone. Renowned for its ability to attract and disperse light, the diamond has always been the first choice for royalty and lay man alike. The name diamond is derived from the ancient Greek (adámas) which translates as “proper”, “unalterable”, “unbreakable” or “untamed”.
Diamonds come in the a variety of colours, from the popular colourless ones to the more fancy pinks, blues, yellows, oranges, greens and reds. Fancy diamonds are rarer and more expensive.
Freesiaos is India’s largest online retailer of diamonds, and we offer certified diamond jewellery to suit all tastes and budgets.
Emerald – May
Emeralds are a green transparent variety of beryl. Like Amethysts define purple, Emeralds stand for all things beautifully and unimaginably green. In top quality, fine emeralds are even more valuable than diamonds! The name emerald comes from the Greek ‘smaragdos’ and the Old French ‘esmeralde’, which means ‘green gemstone’. One of the oldest stones to be mined, every culture from Indian to Inca, associates the emerald with luck, healing & holiness.
This classic gem is available at Freesiaos in elegantly crafted jewellery.
Pearl – June
Pearls come in all shades, from pinkish lavender to black. Colour does not affect the value of the pearl, so go ahead and choose shades that flatter your skin tone. While no pearl is totally perfect, the lesser the imperfections on the surface, the higher the value of your gem. Lustre or sheen refers to the mirror like quality of the pearl. Pearls with good surfaces typically have better lustre and stand out when worn.
Ruby – July
Rubies are a deep red, transparent variety of corundum. Rubies along with emeralds and diamonds are one of the world’s most treasured gems. Its characteristic fiery red is associated with passion and warmth, fire and blood, vivacity and spontaneity. Rubies are about elemental energy. The word ‘Ruby’ itself comes from the Latin word ‘rubens’ meaning red and there is no need for further explanation! All other colours of corundum are classified as sapphires.
Give yourself a Ruby High, with classic red ruby jewellery at Freesiaos
Peridot – August
Peridots are a pale green, transparent variety of olivine chrysolite. The peridot is one of the few gemstones which come in one colour only – green with a hint of gold. It is also one of the world’s oldest gemstones. The ancient Romans called it the – ’emerald of the evening’, as it was believed that the Peridot glowed with light even as darkness fell!
The word Peridot is derived from the Greek word ‘peridona’, which means ‘to give richness’. An ideal summer stone, touches of Peridot add lightness & shine to any wardrobe. The Peridot signifies strength, both individual and within a relationship, as well as the promise of new growth in years ahead.
For those whose B’day falls in August, Freesiaos has Peridot jewellery in earrings, rings & pendants.
Sapphire – September
Sapphires are a pure form of the mineral corundum. Sapphires are mostly thought of as blue in colour, but this versatile stone can be found in pink, orange, yellow and purple shades!
However, the blue of Sapphire supersedes all others gems when it comes to symbolizing sincerity and faithfulness: reasons why a Sapphire engagement ring has a large band of followers!
Named after the Greek word “sapphirus”, meaning blue, Sapphires were thought to be protective against envy, and even against poisoning! The second hardest stone, next to the diamonds, Sapphires can easily be fashioned into any form of jewellery.
Freesiaos offers you rings, earrings and pendants in Blue & yellow sapphires.
Tourmaline – October
Born in October and you have a rainbow to choose from! Tourmaline, the October birthstone comes in an incomparable variety of shades. According to legend, the Tourmaline on its way up from the centre of the earth passed through a rainbow, absorbing its colours on the way.
This gemstone of the rainbow, gets its name from the Singhalese words ‘tura mali’ which roughly translates as ‘mixed in colours’. A unique gem stone, no two Tourmalines are alike and even a single Tourmaline can change colour depending on the light!
What a delightful, quirky birthstone!
Freesiaos celebrates the vibrancy of Tourmaline in rings, pendants, hearts, earrings & more!
Citrine – November
Citrine is a pale-yellow variety of crystalline quartz. The name Citrine comes from an old French word, “citrin”, meaning lemon. Citrines range from the palest yellow to a dark amber named Madeira, that nearly touches red.
First surfacing in Roman times, the Citrine was believed to have magical powers and was worn as a talisman against evil. It was also used for medicinal purposes as a remedy for urinary and kidney ailments.
A gift of Citrine is symbolic for hope and strength. With its sunny brightness, this gemstone brings a ray of sunshine to the darkest days.
A gift of Citrine is symbolic for hope and strength. With its sunny brightness, this gemstone is ideal for helping anyone to get through the tough times in life!
Freesiaos offers classic mellow yellow shades of Citrine in designs designed to let its warmth glow!
Topaz – December
While most people think of Topaz as blue, it is a fluorine aluminium silicate and comes in yellow, yellow-brown, honey-yellow, flax, brown, green, blue, light blue, red and pink shades.
The word Topaz is derived from the Sanskrit word “tapas,” meaning fire. This is because Blue Topaz was considered by ancient civilizations to have cooling properties. Not only was it believed to cool boiling water, but to calm hot tempers as well! This gemstone was credited with many other healing powers, including the ability to cure insanity, asthma, weak vision and insomnia!
You can wear it to simply feel good and luxuriate, for Topaz jewellery is both prized and considered extremely tasteful.